Singer and journalist form Senegal living in Poland, professional vet, singing in Wolof, Polish and French. Among others, he cooperated with Voo Voo on “Zapłacono” album and Tam Tam Project band. Together with Pako Sarr and Mohamed M’bow (djembe, guitar and vocals) he founded Senegalese trio Djolof-Man. Associated with Afryka.org – portal working on promotion of Africa. Mamadou is also a correspondent of Continent Warsaw portal – information site concerning multiculturalism in Warsaw.
I have taken part in numerous discussion panels, conferences and workshops. Most of them have been organised by non-governmental organisations, sometimes also by the public administration. The last Forum was held in Warsaw and its subject was the migration policy of three Polish cities: Cracow, Lublin and Warsaw. That was also the order in which workshops were organised in the three cities, each time at the invitation of the main partner of the Forum – one of the following non-governmental organisations: Interkulturalni (the Intercultural), Homo Faber and the Inna Przestrzeń (Other Space) Foundation.
The third sector has its merits in the development of democracy, resolution of various social issues and numerous untypical problems. I sometimes wonder: if the third sector had existed in the Middle Ages, would have Galileo had a good protector and defender in his confrontation with the church authorities? The effectiveness of NGOs is simply unparalleled in certain matters.
Both the 3rd Forum and the two previous ones were devoted to the problems of immigrants. We all regretted that there had been so few of them at the first two Forums. The ambition of the Warsaw team was to get in contact with as many immigrants as possible and to invite them to work in the teams. The scheme that proved effective was as follows: we would search for the contact details of the leader of a specific immigrant community or an organisation, make a call, check whether the person had received the information we provided. Finally, we would ask him or her to register and choose a subject group. That really worked. Vietnam, Pakistan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Senegal, Mexico and Brasil to name just a few non-European countries. At the Forum opening plenary session, almost half of the participants were immigrants.
Another goal that the organisers set for themselves, an even more important one, was actually a question. What, apart from the strong presence of immigrants and extension of the scope of subjects that the groups deal with, would be an asset to our meetings? What could give the Forum new quality? The answer was only one: the lot of recommendation letters would be decisive. What would become of them? Would they go to the bins in decision-making institutions? Would they get stuck in the long-forgotten drawers of public officers? All the groups were requested to indicate whom the results of their work were addressed to. At the final plenary meeting, all the participants knew which local or state government institutions were the addressees of recommendations: the Sejm subcommittee for cooperation with non-governmental organisations, local authorities, ministries, immigrant communities, organisations for immigrants, and still others.
Let us go back to the very definition of a non-governmental organisation for a moment – it is
a non-profit civic body, acting on its own initiative for the benefit of a specific area of public interest. If it is a platform created by citizens, how come that its voice is not easily heard by politicians and does not strike a chord with their sensitivity?
At one point, I started to wonder what the motives of professional politicians are. What incentives work with them? What do the fact cats of politics feed on?
This group strives to make a good impression only when elections are coming. All would be fine (sometimes only seemingly) if such promises were fulfilled before the elections.
The perspective that their work will be judged is the most important test for them (unless
a politician is a statesman or an involved citizen). Why couldn’t the Forum, out of concern for recommendations, which are prepared with so much effort, create an “artificial” pre-election atmosphere so that politicians feel similarly uncomfortable (and simultaneously motivated to act and resolve problems)?
It is important to send e-mails and letters with recommendations and the signatures of the organisations present at the Forum. Only then will we find out what actions must be taken in
a particular situation. Has there been any response or not? This is what determines future actions. Should we practice soft or hard lobbying from now on? How do public offices communicate with the world: by mail, in writing or by telephone? All these elements should be somehow combined. No institution can turn a blind eye to them.
We have to keep on knocking to many different doors. We have to find the right department, division and room; then look for a person responsible for the given problem in the Ministry X, institution Y or office Z. We have to target such institutions and bombard them with questions. Sejm sessions have developed useful practices in this respect. Eventually, someone will feel guilty and a meeting will be organised. That is the whole point of it – to sit down and to talk. But maybe this method is not universal. After two Forums in Cracow and Lublin, it is high time we changed our tactics in order to become more effective. It is important to answer the question of what will become of sensible recommendations.
This is how I see the future of the efforts the group made during three days. Otherwise, despair will set in. What is the point of all deliberations if all this will come to nothing, or to nada, as the Portuguese say. Lobbying is a must. This is what all communities do. Business communities have their semi-secret methods.
The third sector has the voice of people at its disposal. Since it is closer to the society, undertaking actions out of office, such a practice may yield good results. Recommendations include not only questions and complaints but, more and more often, proposals and resolutions of specific social issues. First of all, we must focus on our goals! And do so effectively! Actually, if there is no social life without crossing boundaries, we have to talk.
By Mamadou Diouf
Translation: Anna Orzechowska
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Polish organisations have submitted applications on behalf or for the benefit of immigrants on numerous occasions. In the very beginning, it should be emphasised that there is an obvious qualitative difference between applications “on behalf” and “for the benefit.” As for the former, there is certain cooperation between an organisation and a group of immigrants. This means that there are immigrants in a group which works on the general idea of the project, its preparation and goals. A project “for the benefit” of immigrants, by contrast, sounds worse in my opinion. Still, much depends on the area of activity.
The European Fund for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals (EIF) was launched in Poland in 2007. In the first years of its functioning, the Fund seemed to me a suspicious, even Mafia-like entity. Everyone kept too quiet about it. Its members did not appear in the media. There were no promotional campaigns, posters or anything that would have informed Poles about how they could help immigrants to integrate with the new society.
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My friend once told me, “Be more wary of the tax office than of the police.” In retrospect, it seems to me that he forgot to add that no one had ever won with the Polish Social Insurance Institution, ZUS for short in Polish. I had no idea what kind of institution it is. This sounds strange but that was really the case at the time. I had never been employed on a full time basis. Common sense told me: “Dude, what is a social insurance pension for immigrants?”
Over five years ago, being in a hurry, I took the wrong train. This sometimes happens when you are late but know which platform the train departs from. The train was supposed to have gone to Zakopane. It turned out that that it was an express to ZUS. That’s how troubles began, much fuss about with money and insurance.
It has always puzzled me why insurance is obligatory. Why can’t you insure yourself there where you want or put aside a sum of money on your bank account to use in the event of an illness or accident. Some procedures, however, have to be completed “ex officio.” That’s always the case when something is regulated by laws and regulations.
Social Insurance Institution. In Polish, ZUS for short. I am allergic to the very abbreviation, so popular in Poland. By no means is ZUS brave. Not all artists know that their performances are treated as a form of economic activity by ZUS. It’s enough that you are on the register of artists held by the Ministry of Culture (you don’t have to either have a NIP or REGON number or keep the books as is the case with a typical economic activity). As for me, ZUS told me to pay the insurance contributions for the previous years. A considerable sum of money had accumulated in no time (I wish it had been the Polish national lottery). Even installments were of little help because the law prohibits spreading payments over a period longer than five years. It is something that is called “voluntary” health insurance! A social security fund, health insurance, a labour fund … I don’t remember how many times I had to fill in, with capital letters and numbers, the blank spaces below these phrases sounding like
For several days, I was considering an idea of bringing the case before the European Tribunal of Human Rights in Strasbourg. Something was definitely amiss with my case. Finally, my warm feelings towards the country on the Vistula River prevailed. I didn’t want to do anything against the country that had received me so warmly some years ago. After all, when any case is brought before international institutions, the image of the country gets tarnished to some extent. I had to pay even though the validity of the request made by ZUS was doubtful. The case, however, was later brought before the European Commission on the request of ZUS after I had submitted an application for redemption of the debt. Halfway through 2014, I already see the end of the stairway or maybe it’s the terminus of the train I wrote about in the beginning. At this point I finish my personal story.
I’m thinking of making use of my six-year-long experience: various contacts, meetings, appeals, applications for spreading out the payments, submitted to ZUS. I’m thinking of piecing it all together in order to organise meetings with international students and immigrants all over Poland. These will be workshops, during which I will talk about my own ignorance in the face of the significance of the situation. In fact, ZUS and the tax office are both equally inaccessible.
Every student and immigrant (if he or she works) is obliged to secure himself or herself. In the beginning, it is obviously far more important to complete formalities required to obtain a visa and register our residence. An official announcement published by ZUS is as follows: “If a person insures himself or herself voluntarily, he or she is required to report to ZUS the fact of having concluded a voluntary health insurance contract with the provincial division of the National Health Fund (NFZ for short in Polish).” That’s what I did a few years ago, believing that I would be paying insurance contributions from that moment on. It turned out that ZUS had charged money even before it even learnt about my existence. That’s what immigrants should strive to avoid. It’s not worth their nerves, a constantly empty bank account and unnecessary installments. I will talk to them about health insurance. Similar meetings, workshops and panels will be particularly helpful for those who are responsible only for themselves (have no children and spouse, and are in good health for the time being). These people probably are not especially interested in matters concerning insurance.
I think that workshops concerning such questions as why the social insurance system is so important, how and where you can insure yourself in Poland, whether you can check if the employer has insured the employee (something that is particularly important for footballers playing in lower leagues), to what benefits an insured person is entitled to and how old-age and disability pensions are granted may prove very useful. Even ZUS itself could be willing to send its experts to answer questions of young immigrants. Someone should explain to them that it’s beneficial for them to pay insurance contributions. I’m curious what percentage of immigrants takes into consideration the perspective of spending their retirement in Poland. We can fall ill or have an accident today or tomorrow. Retirement is a marathon. We don’t always think about how our life will look like in 20 or 30 years’ time.
There is, however, one privileged group of foreigners who are not subject to social insurance. These are citizens of foreign countries (this turn of phrase sounds better than the word “immigrants” although it is the proper definition of a foreigner!) whose residence in Poland is not permanent and who are employed at foreign diplomatic representations, consular posts, international institutions or in special missions. Those who study at state higher education institutions have the problem off their heads. At every such an institution, there is some nice person (a deputy dean for students’ affairs) who helps with all matters concerning social assistance. The situation looks much glimmer when it comes to immigrants working illegally, for instance at markets. I’m curious how much immigants know about ZUS.
By Mammadou Diouf
Translation: Anna Orzechowska
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Migrants and development
When we touch upon the topic of migrations, we focus on two things. First, what a society can do as a host to integrate the newcomers. Secondly, what the newcomers should do to be received in a peaceful way. Today, I would like to refer to different expectations – those of the migrants’ families. What does a family, who very often pays for the journey, expect, what are the thoughts of those who are left in the so called third countries? What migrants do to help in the development of their place of birth? The problem of the migrations and development has not beenconsidered in Poland as yet.
Irregular immigration, either legal or not, contributes to the progress, to the development of the third countries. Those people are the actors of the progress, solid progress. They start different projects for the development of their villages or regions. Usually these projects are aimed at such places, forgotten by the central authority, where there is no school or health centre.
The migrations are the potential engine of growth and development for all engaged parties: receiving countries, countries of origin and for the immigrants themselves. The advantages for the society of the receiving country are obvious: the rejuvenation of the labour force at no expense, the increase of the profitability of such sectors as agriculture and services, important contribution to the system of social care, the response to the needs of the branch of new technologies.Migrants’ countries of origin gain a positive capital investment (money orders as well as investments) through the transfer of technology and competences.
A new perspective on the development aid
Between the immigrants and their villages
By Mamadou Diouf
Translation: Alicja Kosim
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Anyone who travels knows this first barrier when arriving to a new place. This barrier is native speech of course!
None of adults wants to become voiceless suddenly because of language barrier. A riddle: universal language, neither English, nor Esperanto. What’s the language? The answer is: body language – your hands and face expressions, gesticulation in general. This will help in some situations. Unfortunately, it is useless when asking more detailed questions concerning living or everyday problems. Quite frankly, as a newcomer I would not have any idea how to ask: “where’s the foreigners office, my visa is about to expire”. Language is the basic tool, useful not only for integration.
Projekt ‘MIEJSKI SYSTEM INFORMACYJNY I AKTYWIZACYJNY DLA MIGRANTÓW’ jest współfinansowany z Programu Krajowego Funduszu Azylu, Migracji i Integracji oraz budżetu państwa. Wyłączna odpowiedzialność spoczywa na autorze. Komisja Europejska nie ponosi odpowiedzialności za sposób wykorzystania udostępnionych informacji.
Projekt LOKALNE MIĘDZYSEKTOROWE POLITYKI NA RZECZ INTEGRACJI IMIGRANTÓW realizowany był w ramach programu Obywatele dla Demokracji, finansowanego z Funduszy EOG.
Projekt LOKALNE POLITYKI MIGRACYJNE - MIĘDZYNARODOWA WYMIANA DOŚWIADCZEŃ W ZARZĄDZANIU MIGRACJAMI W MIASTACH był współfinansowany ze środków Unii Europejskiej w ramach Europejskiego Funduszu na rzecz Integracji Obywateli Państw Trzecich oraz budżetu państwa. Wyłączna odpowiedzialność spoczywa na autorze. Komisja Europejska nie ponosi odpowiedzialności za sposób wykorzystania udostępnionych informacji.
Projekt LOKALNE MIĘDZYSEKTOROWE POLITYKI NA RZECZ INTEGRACJI IMIGRANTÓW był współfinansowany ze środków Unii Europejskiej w ramach Europejskiego Funduszu na rzecz Integracji Obywateli Państw Trzecich oraz budżetu państwa. Wyłączna odpowiedzialność spoczywa na autorze. Komisja Europejska nie ponosi odpowiedzialności za sposób wykorzystania udostępnionych informacji.
Projekt ‘WARSZAWSKIE CENTRUM WIELOKULTUROWE’ był współfinansowany ze środków Unii Europejskiej w ramach Europejskiego Funduszu na rzecz Integracji Obywateli Państw Trzecich oraz budżetu państwa. Wyłączna odpowiedzialność spoczywa na autorze. Komisja Europejska nie ponosi odpowiedzialności za sposób wykorzystania udostępnionych informacji.
LOKALNE MIĘDZYSEKTOROWE POLITYKI NA RZECZ INTEGRACJI IMIGRANTÓW Projekt realizowany był przy wsparciu Szwajcarii w ramach szwajcarskiego programu współpracy z nowymi krajami członkowskimi Unii Europejskiej.